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Maoxiong News >> Maoxiong News >> Attention and vision >> On the Development of Green Vegetables in China

On the Development of Green Vegetables in China

Writer:From the networkDate:2017-3-31 16:07

 Vegetables are essential food to maintain people's health and indispensable daily life. In recent years, due to the contribution of vegetable production to agricultural efficiency and the increase of farmers' income, the vegetable industry can increase the international trade balance of agricultural products, the vegetable industry can increase the employment of urban and rural people, so China's vegetable production in the adjustment of planting structure has been a Hot spots. Vegetable production area, output and output value in the planting industry after the food, ranked second. Vegetables have become China's agriculture, rural economy pillar industries.
However, with the development of vegetable commercial production, especially in the past 10 years, the rapid development of vegetable production, vegetable production process will often cause the growing ecological pollution and many other issues. In the people's health awareness of the growing demand for development, for pollution-free safety, quality, nutrition, food, that is, the growing demand for green food. Therefore, the production and consumption of green vegetables has become a hot issue of widespread concern in society.
Key words: green vegetable problem countermeasure
Green vegetables are a kind of green food, refers to the vegetable production process pesticide residues in the use of pesticide residues in vegetables indicators lower than the national or international standards.
The development of green vegetables need
China is a vegetable production country, after the 20th century, 90 years, China's vegetable production area continues to expand, increasing production for the development of rural economy and improve people's quality of life played a significant role. But this kind of extensive management as the main model of high yield, is the ecological environment as a price. The producers put a lot of chemical fertilizers, too much nitrogen was applied to the soil, on the one hand with the water leaching, so that the groundwater nitrate content increased, on the other hand the vegetable plant nitrate accumulation in the body. While about 80% of the human body's nitrate is from vegetables. Long-term consumption of nitrate exceeded the vegetables, easy to cause the role of nitrate by microorganisms in the human body reduced to nitrite, nitrite can generate nitrosamines, which is a class of highly carcinogenic organic compounds, while nitrite Salt and human hemoglobin combination, so that the loss of oxygen transport function that is caused by nitrite poisoning. Therefore, people are pressing for the development of green vegetables.
The development of green vegetables is also the needs of China's economic development. Growing demand for vegetables around the world, but some developed countries and regions, the self-sufficiency rate of vegetables continued to decline, most of the dependence on imports of green vegetables. China's vegetable production accounts for 40% of the world's total output, while the export volume is only 9% of world trade. If China's exports to the same proportion increased to 40%, you can increase the export volume of more than 90 million tons. To improve the market share of vegetables in the world market, the production of green vegetables is the best way, especially in China's accession to the WTO, both opportunities and challenges. Foreign agricultural products to high-quality, non-polluting nutrition products into the Chinese vegetable market, China's vegetable production does not improve the quality, the simple pursuit of production, is bound to be eliminated. It can be seen that economic development is also calling for the development of green vegetables.
  China's green vegetables after ten years of rapid development, although some achievements have been made, but this development is still in its infancy, all over the establishment of a number of demonstration bases, China's current vegetable consumption is not dominated by green vegetables , Thousands of years of ideas and the system restricts the pace of development of green vegetables.

二、我国绿色蔬菜发展前景
我国是世界四大果蔬生产基地之一也是蔬菜消费的第一大国,发展绿色蔬菜有着巨大的国际市场和潜在的国内市场。一方面,随着农业生态环境的恶化和人们生活水平的提高,消费者对于绿色蔬菜的呼声越来越高,在目前许多地区蔬菜总产量新趋饱和的形势下,以质取胜无疑是蔬菜业再上新台阶的出路。我国已具有发展绿色蔬菜的很多有利条件,在我国适度规模地发展绿色农业、开发绿色蔬菜产品是切实可行的。另一方面,发达国家存在着蔬菜产品需求量增加与弱化蔬菜生产之间的矛盾,发展绿色蔬菜,增加蔬菜出口,为使我国进一步成为蔬菜贸易强国提供了机会,也为我国蔬菜产业的发展提供了新的思路。
三、我国的绿色蔬菜发展存在的问题: 1、农民素质问题
我国农村劳动力的文化素质普遍较低,他们很难掌握新的科学知识和先进的生产技术,在操作过程中很难严格按照操作规程办事,尤其是要求减少化肥、农药施用量,这样会影响到他们的收入,大部分农民会选择放弃生产绿色蔬菜,而选择继续使用大量农药和化肥,以期达到最大的利润。因此,我国的绿色蔬菜一直没能在全国得到长足发展,一直停留在一些示范园里种植、研究。
2、技术问题
生产绿色蔬菜并非禁用农药和化学肥料,关键是要科学合理施用。在使用农药时要防治和控制相结合,力求既能防治病虫害,又能控制蔬菜上的农药残留量不超标。大多数蔬菜都是喜硝态氮作物,土壤硝态氮含量过少会影响生长。为了保持土壤中硝态氮的适宜含量,采用有机肥和无机肥相结合的施肥方式最佳。然而,现在绿色蔬菜生产过程中的病虫害问题、土壤肥力问题、环境污染控制问题等还没有得到妥善的解决。而解决这些问题必须依靠先进的技术。
3、产业链中各环节的衔接问题
绿色蔬菜生产是各部门协作的产业。随着我国蔬菜产量的节节攀升,相应的加工、贮藏、保鲜、运输等能力却很落后,每年的损失高达蔬菜总产量的30%。管理部门忙于前期考察与审批工作,对生产过程及后期跟踪检查监督工作不力,使绿色蔬菜与标准的绿色蔬菜产生差距。
消费者对于鉴别绿色蔬菜知识的缺乏,也显露出绿色概念的宣传还不到位。 4、补偿问题
生产绿色蔬菜的过程中,需要投入很多的时间和劳动力,化肥的减量和限量也影响了蔬菜的产量。因此,绿色蔬菜的价位会高于普通蔬菜很多。但是,缺乏辨别能力的消费者很难接受这种高价位的绿色蔬菜。这样就会造成农民更大的损失,更多的农民不敢生产绿色蔬菜,出现“投的越多,损失也越多”的恶性循环。那么这些损失应该由谁来承担呢?目前来看,还是得农民自己来承担,绿色蔬菜的发展也因为补偿问题而发展停滞。
5、政府问题
虽然近几年来政府在涉农政策上有了大量的惠农政策,但是,在农村基层的技术指导等技术上的支持还远远不够,我国拥有数量巨大的农村人口,但技术人员的数量完全不成比例,技术人员下乡做的远不如政策上说的那么好,只是极少数的农民可以享受到这样的技术支持。所以,政府的监管力度不够导致绿色蔬菜的发展一直没有推向农村,推向农民。
四、发展绿色蔬菜的对策: 1、增加人才培养的投入
科学技术日新月异的今天,竞争无处不在,竞争实际上是人才的、智力的、知识转化为生产力的竞争。绿色蔬菜生产过程中同样需要具有专业知识的技术人员,他们能根据根据不同地区、不同哦部分人员的特点,因地制宜地创建绿色蔬菜生产模式及指导不同农民生产和经营绿色蔬菜。同时要加快技术研究和推广工作步伐,利用现有的示范基地,加快技术的转化,改变农民的生产观念,促进绿色蔬菜生产的发展。农民作为直接参与者,对其培训能直接地使科学成果与生产实践结合在一起。所以,政府加大对技术人员培养的投入才是当务之急。
2、普及农村信息技术,提高农民素质
政府投入培养出更多的技术人才。而这些技术人员必须走进农村,走进农民,把先进的生产发展绿色蔬菜的技术推广开来,指导农民种植、管理技术。比如无土栽培,施用有机肥,运用生物防治病虫害等能够提高蔬菜品质的技术。
农村作为信息不发达的地区,农民更没有机会运用信息技术来改善自己的技术。所以,应该普及农村信息服务站,增加农民使用网络信息查询的场所,使农民可以了解更多外面的先进农业技术,进而提高农民本身的素质。
3、严格执行产品质量控制标准,发挥政府监督检测职能
 

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